Aldous Huxley was a grandson of the outstanding biologist Thomas Henry Huxley and was the one-third child of the biographer and man of letters Leonard Huxley ; his brothers included physiologist Andrew Fielding Huxley and biologist Julian Huxley. He was educated at Eton, during which prison term he became partially blind because of keratitis. He retained enough eyesight to read with difficulty, and he graduated from Balliol College, Oxford, in 1916. He published his first reserve in 1916 and worked on the periodical athenaeum from 1919 to 1921. Thereafter he devoted himself largely to his own write and spent much of his time in Italy until the recently 1930s, when he settled in California .
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Huxley established himself as a major author with his first two published novels, Crome Yellow ( 1921 ) and clown Hay ( 1923 ) ; these are witty and malicious satires on the pretensions of the English literary and intellectual coteries of his day. Those Barren Leaves ( 1925 ) and Point Counter Point ( 1928 ) are works in a exchangeable vein.
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Brave New World ( 1932 ) marked a turning steer in Huxley ’ s career : like his earlier shape, it is a basically satirical fresh, but it besides vividly expresses Huxley ’ s distrust of 20th-century trends in both politics and technology. The novel presents a bloodcurdling vision of a future club in which psychological discipline forms the footing for a scientifically determined and immutable caste system that, in change by reversal, obliterates the individual and grants all control to the World State. The novel Eyeless in Gaza ( 1936 ) continues to shoot barb at the vanity and purposelessness experienced in contemporaneous club, but it besides shows Huxley ’ s growing interest in Hindu philosophy and mysticism as a feasible alternative. ( many of his subsequent works reflect this preoccupancy, notably The Perennial Philosophy [ 1946 ]. ) In the fresh After Many a Summer Dies the Swan ( 1939 ), published soon after he moved to California, Huxley turned his care to american culture. Huxley ’ s most crucial late works are The Devils of Loudun ( 1952 ), a detail psychological study of a historical incident in which a group of 17th-century french nuns were allegedly the victims of demonic possession, and The Doors of Perception ( 1954 ), a book about Huxley ’ s experiences with the hallucinogenic drug mescaline. His last novel, Island ( 1962 ), is a utopian sight of a Pacific Ocean society. The generator ’ sulfur lifelong preoccupation with the negative and convinced impacts of science and engineering on 20th-century animation, expressed most forcefully in Brave New World but besides in one of his last essays, written for Encyclopædia Britannica ’ randomness 1963 volume of The Great Ideas Today, about the conquest of space, make him one of the representative writers and intellectuals of that hundred.